Momordica charantia, belonging to the family of Cucurbitaceae, also named as bitter melon, balsam pear and bitter gourd. This plant is used for the treatment of various diseases from ancient days to now a day. The fruit of this plant is mainly used as vegetable and can cure small pox infection. It has also been utilized in different Asian traditional medicines for the treatment of bronchitis, cholera, anemia, ulcer, blood diseases, diarrhea, gonorrhea rheumatism, gout, colic, worms, dysentery, disease of liver and spleen, cancer and diabetes etc. The main constituents of of this plant include protein, triterpene, alkaloid, steroid, inorganic, lipid, and phenolic compounds, which are responsible for biological and pharmacological activities such as anti-diabetic, anti-cancerous and anti-tumorous, anti-microbial, anti-helmintic, antimalarial, anti-ulcerative and immunomodulatory. The present study gives pool information about the botany, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological actions of different parts of Momordica charantia Linn (Karela).