Microbial contamination of imported soybean meal which used as animal feed in Iraq
Musaddak D Ali, Muhsin L Al-Musawi, Siham B Hussein, Zainab A Abdel Hassan, Marwa T Hamd
Soybean meal is most important components in diets for animals; therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial contamination rate and types of pathogens in imported Soybean meal to Iraq because of this contamination causing animal diseases that often causing death and great economic losses. A total of 100 samples were collected from Iraqi borders points, cultured, bacteriological and mycological analysis were down. Bacteriological analysis results identified Gram-negative bacteria in (78) samples at (78%) such as E.coli in (34) samples at (34%) then Salmonella spp. in (20) samples at (20%), Klebsiella spp in (15) samples at (15%), Enterobacter (11) isolates at (11%) and Proteus spp. in (9) samples at (9%). Mycological analysis results shows presence of mycotoxogenic fungi: Aspergillusflavus (25) isolates, Fusarium (35) isolates, Penecillium (13) isolates and Alternaria (10) isolates, when we doing total count of fungi, all samples were acceptable to Iraqi standard specification which limited down (105) is required for soybean used as animal feed except (8) samples were unacceptable because its value (2.2×106). Mycotoxin analysis results show presence of Aflatoxin in (66) samples, T2/ HT2 in (78) samples, Ochratoxin in (45) samples. This study concluded presence of microbial contamination (bacteriological and mycological contamination) in most samples and the severity when presence of bacteriological, mycological contamination and mycotoxin in same sample which increase multiple risk for pathogens and its mycotoxin which lead to animal diseases and death causing a loss economic, therefore, it must be assessed the microbial quality of imported Soybean meal by manufacturers and health authorities to ensure its safety because it may harbor potential animal and human pathogens.