Ethno medicine, antioxidant potential and inter-specific variations of Punica L. species growing in Swat district, KP, Pakistan
Noor Muhammad, Nisar Uddin, Mengjun Liu, Niaz Ali
The present study has endeavored to highlight the medicinal importance and free radical scavenging activity as well as genetic relationships among Punica species growing in Swat Valley, KP, Pakistan. Folin-Ciocalteu method revealed higher phenolic content of both species (P. protopunica and P. granatum), values as (81.540±0.831 and 84.048±0.702 μg/mL) respectively, while flavonoids were detected lower except for P. protopunica specie (88.503±1.321 and 79.711±1.417 μg/mL). Both Punica L. species (P. protopunica and P. granatum) displayed strong antioxidant activities, ABTS activities of P. protopunica ranged (ABTS, 92.13±0.33 to 66.62±1.87 μg/mL) While for P. granatum (94.49±0.06 to 63.68±0.98) and DPPH value for P. protopunica (92.89±0.87 to 68.03±1.12 μg/mL), while for P. granatum (91.12±0.32 to 68.01±0.85) respectively. When compared to the control (Ascorbic acid 96.32±0.90 for ABTS and 97.77±0.28μg/mL for DPPH). The intra and inter specific diversity among the 40 genotypes of Punica species viz., 20 genotypes of P. granatum, 20 of P. protopunica, were tested using morphometric and biochemical profiling. Twenty four morphological characters were counted for the assessment of intra and inter genetic variation through traits similarity index and cluster analysis. Morphologically, the two species were 53.846% similar. Total seed protein profiling was carried out on 12% slab gel electrophoresis; 10 bands were recorded in both P. protopunica and P. granatum with molecular weight ranging from 15KDa to 180KDa. Intra locus contribution toward the genetic disagreement was 10% in P. protopunica and 50% in P. granatum. In the same way, inter species locus contribution toward genetic diversity was 50%. Interestingly, locus 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 (B/L-6-B/L-10) were monomorphic in the collected germplasms and may be shown as generic specific loci for Punica species. SDS-PAGE profiling based on two-way cluster plotting successfully determined the two species into separate clusters and the diversity found between and within Punica species may offer unique avenues for breeding and novel drug discovery.