Genetic diversity encourages conservation of threatened ethno medicinally important plant species in Koz Abakhel District Swat, KP, Pakistan
Noor Muhammad, Nisar Uddin, Zhao Xuan, Muhammad Umer, Liu Mengjun, Imad Hussain, Shariat Ullah, Muhammad Khalil Ullah Khan, SF Wadood, Niaz Ali
Swat valley being naturally blessed with tremendous biodiversity; altitudinal and topographic variations is exposed to increasing human pressure, social injustice and low literacy rate that are destabilizing the biodiversity status especially species survival, habitat and ecosystem. These medicinal plant species in the study area were commonly used as an ethno medicine against 19 various disorders out of which most frequently occurred are; Anti-tumor, High blood pressure, Pile, Rheumatism etc. Dominated medicinal plants with most use values were Berberis lycium having (UVi= 0.438), Ziziphus oxyphylla (0.393), Myrtus communis (0.337), Punica protopunica (0.281). While minimum used values of collected medicinal plants were Olea ferruginea (0.258), Alnus nitida (0.224) and Quercus incana (0.146). Based on the RFC values, the most cited medicinal plant species by the traditional drivers were Berberis lycium (RFCs= 0.786), Punica protopunica (0.731), Myrtus communis (0.617), Ziziphus oxyphylla (0.551), Olea ferruginea (0.514), Alnus nitida (0.337) and Quercus incana (0.224). The medicinal plant species with highest fidelity level was of Berberis lycium cited 100% for Jaundice, Diarrhea, Pile, Dysentery, Anti- tumor, Urinary infections, Digestive Problems, Dry Cough, Rheumatism, Dysentery, Diarrhea, Ulcer respectively. Due to representation by only single medicinal plant taxa (Nt = 1), the various diseases viz. Anti-tumor, High blood pressure, Pile, Rheumatism had maximum FIC value. Conservation studies of 7 threatened medicinal plants were carried out for assessment of their conservation status, threats and recommendations growing in Swat valley. Phytogeographically, the valley is present in the Sino Japanese floristic region and is a hot spot of endemism. Among total of 7 taxa 3 (42.85%) vulnerable, 4 (57.14%) endangered species. The protein profiling was carried out on 12% gel electrophoresis; 10, 8, 9, 10, 10, 10,10 and seven reproducible bands were dectected for B. lyceum, O. ferrigunea, M. communis, Z. oxyphylla, P. protopunica, A. nitida and Q. incana respectively; with molecular weight ranges from 10 to 180 KDa. The locus contribution toward genetic disagreement (LCTGD) of B. lyceum, M. communis, P. protopunica and A. nitida was (40% each) whereas the genetic diversity among the genotype of O. ferruginea, Z. oxyphylla, was 30% and the genetic disagreement in the genotypes of Q. incana was 57.142%. This genetic diversity within genotypes of the studied specie is the basis for selection as well as for plant improvement and conservation. The current work delivers indication that these medicinal plants have an important role in the healthcare system of swat urban public. The people this valley still endures to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The existing paper denotes significant ethno botanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological studies and genetic diversity is helpful in selection elite genotypes for futureconservation.