Broad spectrum anti-quorum sensing activity of traditional medicinal plant: Piper betel
Balwant Singh Paliya, Jose Mathew, Sanket Kumar Chaudhari, Brahma N Singh
Piper betel Linn, a traditional herb is well documented for its medicinal importance in the ancient book of Ayurveda (3000 BC). The leaf part of the plant is full of bioactive phenols and terpenes and consumption of its leaf show a varied range of pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, stimulant gastroprotection and anti-parasitic effect. However, P. betel antimicrobial property attribution with anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity has not been explored much. In the present study, first time broad spectrum anti-QS activity of 50% hydroalchoholic extract of P. betel fresh leaf was explored using Chromobacterium violaceum (CV) mutant strains (ATCC 12472, MCC 3299 and MCC 2216), P. aeruginosa (PA01) and C. albicans. In experimental results, Pb-Extract showed strong Quorum quenching behavior against CV 12472 at concentration range 100-300 µg without affecting bacterial growth. Also, Pb-Extract treatment against PA01, showed a marked reduction in virulence factors like pyocyanin, protease, rhamnolipid and alginate. A significant reduction in biofilms production was also reported against PA01 and C. albicans at all range of Pb-Extract dose. Further, luxI/luxR effect data revealed that quorum quenching property of Pb-Extract is associated with inhibition of autoinducer (AHL) production and AHL binding receptor synthesis both. Since, QS mechanism modulates bacterial infection pathogenicity via expression of diversified virulence factors. Therefore, potential anti-QS agents are considered as a better approach for broad spectrum antibacterial drugs. These drugs are free from any side effects for creating drug resistance in pathogens via selective pressure. The present study proposed P. betel as an edible herbal source for a potent anti-QS agent with broad range of QS quenching properties.