Bacterial Endophytes: diversity, colonization and importance as plant growth promoters
S Sharma, R Kumari, A Yadav, S Kumari, N Poonar
Plant helpful bacteria called endophytic bacteria survive inside plants and can help them grow better in both common and complex environments. They can directly advantage host plants by enhancing nutrient absorption and regulating phytohormones that regulate development and exertion. Indirectly, endophytic bacteria can promote plant health by using antibiotics, hydrolytic enzymes, nutrient restriction, and priming plant defences to target pests and diseases. Endophytes penetrate plant tissues through the root zone or aerial regions, as well as by germination radicles, secondary roots, stomata, and foliar routes. Endophyte-plant polymer degrading enzymes like cellulases and pectinases are involved in internal colonisation and may be identified via immunological or in situ hybridization or reporter gene tagging. Endophytes interact with their host plant biochemically and genetically, synthesising osmolytes, osmoprotectants, and antioxidants that help the plants cope with abiotic stress. Few endophytic bacteria have a wide host category and can be exploited as bioinoculants in the development of a secure and long-term farming system. The variables that influence the variety of bacterial endophytes, their host specificity, and plant growth promotion processes are discussed in this study. In addition, the review highlights diverse methodologies for studying endophytic populations, wild plants as a resource of new endophytic bacteria, and emerging tactics that may improve plant endophyte relationship. Furthermore, the obstacles of studying bacterial genes expressed in plants are emphasised.. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development.
S Sharma, R Kumari, A Yadav, S Kumari, N Poonar. Bacterial Endophytes: diversity, colonization and importance as plant growth promoters. International Journal of Botany Studies, Volume 7, Issue 10, 2022, Pages 16-21