In this work, the latex of A. integrifolia, A. hirsutus, A. lookocha, and A. altilis, one of India's oldest fruits in the Western Ghats region, was examined for lectin, protease, and antibacterial activity, as well as protein profiles, using SDS-PAGE. Partially purified lectins were extracted using ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. Latex from A. integrifolia substantially agglutinates pig, goat, and sheep erythrocytes but not human erythrocytes, whereas latex from A.altilis exhibits strong lectin activity against trypsinized human and rabbit erythrocytes. The lectin activity of A. hirsutus and A. lookocha latex is quite low. Despite high protein levels, latex from four different species has different protein compositions with molecular weights ranging from 170 to 10 kDa. Antibacterial activity was investigated using the agar well diffusion method. In the agar well diffusion assay, the partly purified lectins from all four Artocarpus species revealed to have antibacterial action against diverse microbial pathogens. The partially purified lectin from A.atltilis displayed substantial antibacterial activity against K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, S. typhimurium, and B. subtilis, whereas the lectin from A. hirsutus efficiently inhibits K. pneumonia and S. typhimurium growth. K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, and B. subtilis were all inhibited by the lectins from A. heterophyllus and A. lakoocha. None of the latex lectins that had been partly purified were ineffective against E. coli. The presence of these activities in latex suggesting their significance in phytopathogen and insect resistance as well as predator protection.
Vasanthraj B, Anitha Nelliankla, Sameer R Patil, Ghouseul Azam, Sathisha J Gonchigar. Evaluation of latex proteins for Lectin, protease, antibacterial activities and protein profiling from the genus Artocarpus. International Journal of Botany Studies, Volume 7, Issue 3, 2022, Pages 251-259